Characteristics of coronary artery disease in symptomatic type 2 diabetic patients: evaluation with CT angiography
1 Department of Radiology, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, PR China
2 State Key Laboratory of Biotherapy, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610041, PR China
3 Department of Pathology, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Sichuan 610041, PR China
Cardiovascular Diabetology 2010, 9:74 doi:10.1186/1475-2840-9-74Published: 10 November 2010
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a common and severe complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of this study is to identify the features of CAD in diabetic patients using coronary CT angiography (CTA).
From 1 July 2009 to 20 March 2010, 113 consecutive patients (70 men, 43 women; mean age, 68 ± 10 years) with type 2 DM were found to have coronary plaques on coronary CTA. Their CTA data were reviewed, and extent, distribution and types of plaques and luminal narrowing were evaluated and compared between different sexes.
In total, 287 coronary vessels (2.5 ± 1.1 per patient) and 470 segments (4.2 ± 2.8 per patient) were found to have plaques, respectively. Multi-vessel disease was more common than single vessel disease (p < 0.001), and the left anterior descending (LAD) artery (35.8%) and its proximal segment (19.1%) were most frequently involved (all p < 0.001). Calcified plaques (48.8%) were the most common type (p < 0.001) followed by mixed plaques (38.1%). Regarding the different degrees of stenosis, mild narrowing (36.9%) was most common (p < 0.001); however, a significant difference was not observed between non-obstructive and obstructive stenosis (50.4% vs. 49.6%, p = 0.855). Extent of CAD, types of plaques and luminal narrowing were not significantly different between male and female diabetic patients.
Coronary CTA depicted a high plaque burden in patients with type 2 DM. Plaques, which were mainly calcified, were more frequently detected in the proximal segment of the LAD artery, and increased attention should be paid to the significant prevalence of obstructive stenosis. In addition, DM reduced the sex differential in CT findings of CAD.