Table 5

Average food eaten per day during Paleolithic diet and Diabetes diet (mean ± SD)

Paleolithic

Diabetes

P*


Total weight (g)

1445 ± 367

1456 ± 312

0.9

Total energy (MJ)

6.6 ± 1.2

7.9 ± 1.6

0.005

(kcal)

1581 ± 295

1878 ± 379

0.005

Energy density (kJ/g)

4.7 ± 0.7

5.6 ± 1.1

0.02

Protein (g)

94 ± 18

90 ± 14

0.5

(E%)

24 ± 3

20 ± 4

0.0001

Carbohydrate (g)

125 ± 43

196 ± 61

0.00001

(E%)

32 ± 7

42 ± 7

0.0001

Fat (g)

68 ± 11

72 ± 20

0.6

(E%)

39 ± 5

34 ± 6

0.04

Alcohol (g)

6.3 ± 8.9

3.6 ± 5.6

0.2

(E%)

3 ± 4

1 ± 2

0.08

Fiber (g)

21 ± 8

26 ± 8

0.02

(E%)

2.5 ± 0.7

2.7 ± 0.7

0.4

Glycemic Load (g)

63 ± 23

111 ± 41

0.00002

Glycemic Index

50 ± 5

55 ± 6

0.01

Monosaccharides (g)

46 ± 21

33 ± 16

0.03

Disaccharides(g)

31 ± 14

39 ± 15

0.10

Sucrose (g)

29 ± 13

30 ± 12

0.8

Saturated fatty acid (g)

19 ± 5

27 ± 9

0.002

Monounsaturated fatty acid(g)

30 ± 6

26 ± 7

0.13

Polyunsaturated fatty acid (g)

14 ± 4

12 ± 4

0.2

Fatty acid C4:0-C10:0 (g)

0.3 ± 0.4

2.1 ± 1.3

0.0001

Fatty acid C12:0 (g)

0.3 ± 0.3

1.1 ± 0.8

0.002

Fatty acid C14:0 (g)

1.3 ± 0.5

2.8 ± 1.3

0.0002

Fatty acid C16:0 (g)

12 ± 3

14 ± 4

0.02

Fatty acid C16:1 (g)

2.0 ± 0.5

1.5 ± 0.6

0.03

Fatty acid C18:0 (g)

4.5 ± 1.5

5.9 ± 1.9

0.053

Fatty acid C18:1, oleic acid (g)

26 ± 6

24 ± 7

0.3

Fatty acid C18:2, n-6, Linoleic acid (g)

9 ± 4

8 ± 3

0.6

Fatty acid C18:3, n-3, ALA (g)

1.5 ± 0.7

1.6 ± 0.8

0.6

Fatty acid C20:0 (g)

0.1 ± 0.1

0.1 ± 0.1

0.2

Fatty acid C20:4, n-6 (g)

0.2 ± 0.1

0.1 ± 0.1

0.01

Fatty acid C20:5, n-3, EPA (g)

0.6 ± 0.3

0.3 ± 0.3

0.052

Fatty acid C22:5, n-3 (g)

0.2 ± 0.1

0.1 ± 0.1

0.3

Fatty acid C22:6, n-3, DHA (g)

1.3 ± 0.7

0.7 ± 0.7

0.06

Cholesterol (mg)

577 ± 107

365 ± 88

0.0003

Vitamin A, Retinolequivalents (μg)

896 ± 534

1139 ± 450

0.2

Vitamin A, Retinol (μg)

385 ± 333

673 ± 353

0.051

Vitamin A, Caroten (μg)

5038 ± 3414

4811 ± 5633

0.9

Vitamin D (μg)

9 ± 4

9 ± 7

0.9

Vitamin E (mg)

13 ± 4

11 ± 3

0.07

Vitamin E, Alpha-tocopherol (mg)

13 ± 4

11 ± 3

0.07

Vitamin B-1, Thiamin (mg)

1.5 ± 0.5

1.6 ± 0.5

0.8

Vitamin B-2, Riboflavin (mg)

1.6 ± 0.3

1.6 ± 0.2

0.5

Vitamin B-6 (mg)

3.2 ± 0.7

2.4 ± 0.6

0.003

Vitamin B-12 (μg)

8.6 ± 4.0

6.7 ± 2.4

0.2

Vitamin B, Folate (μg)

340 ± 172

300 ± 79

0.4

Vitamin C, Ascorbic acid (mg)

219 ± 136

119 ± 60

0.03

Niacinequivalents (mg)

45 ± 11

39 ± 8

0.08

Niacin (mg)

27 ± 8

22 ± 6

0.03

Phosphorus (mg)

1233 ± 247

1437 ± 208

0.02

Iron (mg)

12 ± 3

12 ± 3

1.0

Potassium (mg)

3669 ± 982

3181 ± 908

0.0497

Calcium (mg)

356 ± 102

698 ± 220

0.00002

Magnesium (mg)

307 ± 84

311 ± 68

0.9

Sodium (mg)

2530 ± 924

2963 ± 678

0.14

Selenium (μg)

81 ± 20

55 ± 18

0.001

Zinc (mg)

11 ± 3

12 ± 2

0.3

Ash (g)

17 ± 4

19 ± 4

0.13

Water (g)

1113 ± 306

1049 ± 258

0.5

Fruits (g)

451 ± 200

251 ± 210

0.005

Vegetables (g)

346 ± 179

241 ± 176

0.0497

Potatoes (g)

49 ± 51

106 ± 84

0.03

Nuts (g)

29 ± 24

12 ± 20

0.13

Meat (g)

139 ± 67

73 ± 29

0.003

Meat products (g)

97 ± 76

71 ± 43

0.2

Fish (g)

104 ± 55

89 ± 56

0.5

Eggs (g)

71 ± 27

27 ± 24

0.001

Beans (g)

4 ± 14

24 ± 33

0.03

Cereals without rice (g)

11 ± 24

172 ± 96

0.00004

Rice (g)

7 ± 17

6 ± 10

0.9

Milk/milk products (g)

16 ± 32

183 ± 123

0.0002

Oil (g)

0.3 ± 0.7

1.4 ± 3.5

0.3

Sauce (g)

13 ± 20

30 ± 36

0.2

Bakery (g)

10 ± 18

34 ± 35

0.005

Jam (g)

0 ± 0

12 ± 22

0.07

Spirits (g)

1.0 ± 2.8

1.4 ± 4.1

0.8

Wine (g)

52 ± 83

20 ± 49

0.14

Beer (g)

31 ± 103

55 ± 80

0.4

Sweet beverages (g)

0 ± 0

38 ± 64

0.051

Juice (g)

12 ± 35

10 ± 26

0.6


Average food eaten per day during Paleolithic diet and Diabetes diet (mean ± SD). Estimated from 4 day weighed food records. *P for difference between diets in a two-sided t-test with dependent samples. E% = percent energy from total macronutrient energy.

Jönsson et al. Cardiovascular Diabetology 2009 8:35   doi:10.1186/1475-2840-8-35

Open Data