Table 2

Baseline differences and carry-over effects between groups with different starting diets (mean ± SD)

Paleolithic diet first

(7 of 13)

Diabetes diet first

(6 of 13)

P*

Baseline

Individual mean for both diets

Baseline

Individual mean for both diets

Baseline

Carryover effect


Sex male/female (n)

6/1

4/2

0.6

Age (year)

66 ± 6

63 ± 6

0.3

Diabetes duration (year)

6 ± 4

11 ± 6

0.13

Diabetic values at OGTT yes/no (n)

6/1

6/0

1.0

Lipid lowering drug (= statin) yes/no (n)

4/3

4/2

1.0

Drugs per day

4.9 ± 2.7

3.7 ± 1.8

0.4

Anti-hypertensive drugs per day

1.9 ± 1.7

1.2 ± 1.2

0.4

Beta-blocker yes/no (n)

3/7

1/6

1.0

Thiazide yes/no (n)

3/7

1/6

1.0

ACE-inhibitor yes/no (n)

3/7

2/6

1.0

Angiotensin-II receptor blocker yes/no (n)

2/7

2/6

1.0

Calcium channel blocker yes/no (n)

2/7

1/7

1.0

Anti-diabetic drugs per day

0.9 ± 0.9

1.5 ± 0.8

0.2

Metformin yes/no (n)

4/7

5/6

1.0

Sulfonylurea yes/no (n)

1/7

2/6

1.0

Thiazolidinedione yes/no (n)

1/7

2/6

1.0

Metformin per day (mg)

814 ± 790

1283 ± 950

0.4

HbA1C (%, Mono-S)

6.2 ± 0.2

5.4 ± 0.5

6.9 ± 0.7

6.2 ± 0.7

0.06

0.04

Cholesterol (mmol/l)

4.2 ± 1.3

4.4 ± 1.4

4.7 ± 0.9

4.3 ± 0.9

0.5

0.9

LDL (mmol/l)

2.7 ± 1.0

2.78 ± 1.25

3.0 ± 0.8

2.67 ± 0.65

0.6

0.8

HDL (mmol/l)

1.28 ± 0.25

1.36 ± 0.27

1.28 ± 0.19

1.24 ± 0.26

1.0

0.4

TG (mmol/l)

1.4 ± 0.5

1.1 ± 0.4

1.7 ± 0.8

1.4 ± 0.7

0.5

0.3

CRP (mg/l)

2.9 ± 2.2

2.2 ± 1.6

1.9 ± 1.3

2.4 ± 1.5

0.4

0.9

SBP (mmHg)

156 ± 23

148 ± 14

144 ± 18

141 ± 17

0.3

0.4

DBP (mmHg)

83 ± 11

80 ± 8

84 ± 9

82 ± 7

0.8

0.6

Height (cm)

172 ± 4

170 ± 6

0.6

Weight (kg)

82 ± 13

77 ± 11

92 ± 20

88 ± 15

0.3

0.2

BMI (kg/m2)

28 ± 4

26 ± 3

32 ± 8

31 ± 6

0.3

0.14

Waist (cm)

97 ± 9

92 ± 8

109 ± 17

101 ± 10

0.2

0.10

fP-glucose (mmol/l)

7.1 ± 0.7

6.6 ± 1.1

8.6 ± 1.2

8.0 ± 1.3

0.02

0.052

fP-insulin (pmol/l)

118 ± 53

64 ± 19

75 ± 12

73 ± 23

0.07

0.5

AUC glucose0–120 (mmol/l·min)

1498 ± 227

1321 ± 310

1734 ± 128

1574 ± 289

0.046

0.2

AUC glucose0–120 (mmol/l·min)1

642 ± 165

534 ± 205

698 ± 219

613 ± 155

0.6

0.5

AUC insulin0–120 (nmol/l·min)

35 ± 13

29 ± 11

24 ± 8

24 ± 15

0.13

0.5

AUC insulin0–120 (nmol/l·min)1

20 ± 8

21 ± 10

15 ± 9

15 ± 13

0.3

0.4

ISI0,120 (mg·l2/mmol·mU·min)

44 ± 11

55 ± 21

36 ± 3

52 ± 19

0.11

0.8

HOMA2 %B

83 ± 36

67 ± 23

43 ± 11

49 ± 15

0.03

0.14

HOMA2 %S

54 ± 35

92 ± 30

65 ± 12

74 ± 25

0.4

0.3

HOMA2 IR

2.4 ± 1.0

1.3 ± 0.4

1.6 ± 0.3

1.5 ± 0.5

0.09

0.3


Baseline differences and carry-over effects between groups randomized to start with Paleolithic diet first or Diabetes diet first (mean ± SD). Carry-over effect tested for on individual means for both diets ((Paleolithic diet plus Diabetes diet)/2). *P for difference between groups with different starting diets in a two-sided t-test with independent samples, except for categorically reported values for sex, diabetic values at OGTT and drug treatment (e.g. lipid lowering drug), where P is for difference in Fisher's exact two-sided test with independent samples. 1stimulated secretion, area under curve at OGTT with value at 0 minutes as baseline.

Jönsson et al. Cardiovascular Diabetology 2009 8:35   doi:10.1186/1475-2840-8-35

Open Data