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Efficacy and safety of monotherapy with the novel sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor tofogliflozin in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a combined Phase 2 and 3 randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group comparative study

Kohei Kaku1*, Hirotaka Watada2, Yasuhiko Iwamoto3, Kazunori Utsunomiya4, Yasuo Terauchi5, Kazuyuki Tobe6, Yukio Tanizawa7, Eiichi Araki8, Masamichi Ueda9, Hideki Suganami10, Daisuke Watanabe11 and for The Tofogliflozin 003 Study Group

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Internal Medicine, Kawasaki Medical School, 577 Matsushima, Kurashiki, Okayama 701-0192, Japan

2 Department of Endocrinology & Metabolism, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-1-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8421, Japan

3 Tokyo Women's Medical University School of Medicine, 8-1, Kawada, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8666, Japan

4 Division of Diabetes, Metabolism and Endocrinology, Department of Internal Medicine, Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8461, Japan

5 Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama City University, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama 236-0004, Japan

6 The First Department of Internal Medicine, University of Toyama, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194, Japan

7 Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, Hematological Science and Therapeutics, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minami-Kogushi, Ube, Yamaguchi, 755-8505, Japan

8 Department of Metabolic Medicine, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555, Japan

9 Clinical Research Planning Department, Chugai, 1-1 Nihonbashi-Muromachi 2-Chome, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-8324, Japan

10 Clinical Data Science Department, Biostatistics Section, Kowa, 3-4-14, Nihonbashi-honcho, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 103-0023, Japan

11 Research & Development, Clinical Sciences & Operations, Biostatistics & Programming, Biostatistics, Sanofi, Tokyo Opera City Tower, 3-20-2, Nishi Shinjuku, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 163-1488, Japan

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Cardiovascular Diabetology 2014, 13:65  doi:10.1186/1475-2840-13-65

Published: 28 March 2014



In recent years, several oral antidiabetic drugs with new mechanisms of action have become available, expanding the number of treatment options. Sodium/glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new class of oral antidiabetic drugs with an insulin-independent mechanism promoting urinary glucose excretion. We report the results of a combined Phase 2 and 3 clinical study (Japic CTI-101349) of the SGLT2 inhibitor tofogliflozin (CSG452, RG7201) in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.


The efficacy and safety of tofogliflozin were assessed in this multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind parallel-group study involving 230 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with inadequate glycemic control on diet/exercise therapy. Between 30 October 2010 and 28 February 2012, patients at 33 centers were randomized to either placebo (n = 56) or tofogliflozin (10, 20, or 40 mg; n = 58 each) orally, once daily for 24 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in HbA1c at week 24.


Overall, 229 patients were included in the full analysis set (placebo: n = 56; tofogliflozin 10 mg: n = 57; tofogliflozin 20 and 40 mg: n = 58 each). The least squares (LS) mean change (95% confidence interval) from baseline in HbA1c at week 24 was −0.028% (−0.192 to 0.137) in the placebo group, compared with −0.797% (−0.960 to −0.634) in the tofogliflozin 10 mg group, −1.017% (−1.178 to −0.856) in the tofogliflozin 20 mg group, and −0.870% (−1.031 to −0.709) in the tofogliflozin 40 mg group (p < 0.0001 for the LS mean differences in all tofogliflozin groups vs placebo). There were also prominent decreases in fasting blood glucose, 2-h postprandial glucose, and body weight in all tofogliflozin groups compared with the placebo group. The main adverse events were hyperketonemia, ketonuria, and pollakiuria. The incidence of hypoglycemia was low. Furthermore, most adverse events were classified as mild or moderate in severity.


Tofogliflozin 10, 20, or 40 mg administered once daily as monotherapy significantly decreased HbA1c and body weight, and was generally well tolerated in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Phase 3 studies were recently completed and support the findings of this combined Phase 2 and 3 study.

Trial registration

This study was registered in the JAPIC clinical trials registry (ID: Japic CTI-101349).

SGLT2 inhibitor; Tofogliflozin; CSG452; RG7201; HbA1c; Body weight