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Effects of the Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Program for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) on biomedical outcomes, observed cardiovascular events and cardiovascular risks in primary care: a longitudinal comparative study

Fang Fang Jiao1*, Colman Siu Cheung Fung1, Carlos King Ho Wong1, Yuk Fai Wan1, Daisy Dai2, Ruby Kwok2 and Cindy Lo Kuen Lam1

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Family Medicine and Primary Care, Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, 3/F Ap Lei Chau Clinic, 161 Main Street, Ap Lei Chau, Hong Kong

2 Primary and Community Services, Hospital Authority Head Office, Hong Kong Hospital Authority, Hospital Authority Building, 147B Argyle Street, Kowloon, Hong Kong

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Cardiovascular Diabetology 2014, 13:127  doi:10.1186/s12933-014-0127-6

Published: 21 August 2014



To assess whether the Multidisciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Program for Patients with Diabetes Mellitus (RAMP-DM) led to improvements in biomedical outcomes, observed cardiovascular events and predicted cardiovascular risks after 12-month intervention in the primary care setting.


A random sample of 1,248 people with diabetes enrolled to RAMP-DM for at least 12 months was selected and 1,248 people with diabetes under the usual primary care were matched by age, sex, and HbA1c level at baseline as the usual care group. Biomedical and cardiovascular outcomes were measured at baseline and at 12-month after the enrollment. Difference-in-differences approach was employed to measure the effect of RAMP-DM on the changes in biomedical outcomes, proportion of subjects reaching treatment targets, observed and predicted cardiovascular risks.


Compared to the usual care group, RAMP-DM group had lower cardiovascular events incidence (1.21% vs 2.89%, P = 0.003), and net decrease in HbA1c (−0.20%, P < 0.01), SBP (−3.62 mmHg, P < 0.01) and 10-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks (total CVD risk, −2.06%, P < 0.01; coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, −1.43%, P < 0.01; stroke risk, −0.71%, P < 0.01). The RAMP-DM subjects witnessed significant rises in the proportion of reaching treatment targets of HbA1c, and SBP/DBP. After adjusting for confounding variables, the significance remained for HbA1c, predicted CHD and stroke risks.


The RAMP-DM resulted in greater improvements in HbA1c and reduction in observed and predicted cardiovascular risks at 12 months follow-up, which indicated a risk-stratification multidisciplinary intervention was an effective strategy for managing Chinese people with diabetes in the primary care setting.

Trial registry, NCT02034695 webcite

RAMP-DM; Multidisciplinary intervention; Risk stratification; Effectiveness; Diabetes