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Open Access Highly Accessed Original investigation

High or low calcium intake increases cardiovascular disease risks in older patients with type 2 diabetes

Jui-Hua Huang1, Leih-Ching Tsai2, Yu-Chen Chang13 and Fu-Chou Cheng4*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Community Health, Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chia-Yi, Taiwan

2 Division of Endocrine and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, Erlin-Branch, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan

3 Department of Geriatric Medicine, Chia-Yi Christian Hospital, Chia-Yi, Taiwan

4 Stem Cell Center, Department of Medical Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan

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Cardiovascular Diabetology 2014, 13:120  doi:10.1186/s12933-014-0120-0

Published: 1 August 2014

Abstract

Background

We investigated the effects of dietary calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) intakes on cardiovascular disease risks in older patients with diabetes.

Methods

In this cross-sectional study, 197 patients with type 2 diabetes aged 65 years and above were recruited. The 24-h dietary recalls and 1-week self-reported typical dietary intake patterns were collected. The Ca and Mg intakes of <67% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA), 67%–100% of RDA, and >100% of RDA were defined as low, moderate, and high Ca and Mg intakes, respectively. Anthropometric measurements were determined and biochemical analysis of blood and urine was performed.

Results

Our data indicated that 60.9% and 87.3% of our patients were Ca and Mg intakes below RDA, respectively. Patients whose Ca intake was high or low (81.2%) had significantly higher C-reactive protein (CRP) than those whose Ca intake was moderate (p = 0.043). Furthermore, patients whose Mg intake was low (87.3%) had significantly higher CRP than that of those who took adequate Mg (p = 0.025). The dietary Ca:Mg intake ratios were highly correlated with CRP, platelet counts, and red blood cell distribution (p < 0.05). A dietary Ca:Mg intake ratio of 2.0–2.5 was significantly correlated to lower CRP levels (p = 0.013).

Conclusions

High or low calcium intake increases cardiovascular disease risks. We suggest that “moderate” intake of 402–600 mg Ca/day (approximately 67%–100% of Taiwan RDA for Ca) and adequate Mg intake (or meeting RDA for Mg) with Ca:Mg intake ratio of 2.0–2.5 are important for reducing cardiovascular disease risks in older patients with diabetes.

Keywords:
Calcium; Magnesium; Inflammation; Cardiovascular disease risk; Older patients with diabetes