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Open Access Highly Accessed Original investigation

Increased Th1 and suppressed Th2 serum cytokine levels in subjects with diabetic coronary artery disease

Haridoss Madhumitha1, Viswanathan Mohan2, Mohan Deepa2, Subash Babu3 and Vivekanandhan Aravindhan1*

Author Affiliations

1 AU-KBC Research Centre, MIT Campus of Anna University, Chennai 600 044, India

2 Madras Diabetes Research Foundation & Dr. Mohan’s Diabetes Specialties Centre, WHO Collaborating Centre for Non-Communicable Diseases Prevention and Control, International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Centre for Education, Chennai, India

3 National Institutes of Health-International Center for Excellence in Research, National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis, Chennai, India

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Cardiovascular Diabetology 2014, 13:1  doi:10.1186/1475-2840-13-1

Published: 3 January 2014

Abstract

Background

The role played by T helper cytokines under chronic, low grade inflammation as seen in type-2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) and Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) co-morbidity is less well studied. In the present study, we measured the serum levels of both Th1 and Th2 cytokines and correlated it with clinical risk factors for T2DM (Insulin Resistance (IR), Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c)) and CAD (C-Reactive Protein (CRP), Intima Media Thickness (IMT) and Augmentation index (AGI)) in T2DM subjects with/without CAD.

Methodology

The study subjects were recruited from Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES). Serum cytokine profile was determined by multiplex cytokine assay in Control (n = 61), T2DM (n = 60), CAD (n = 23) and T2DM-CAD (n = 21) subjects.

Results

T2DM subjects showed a mixed Th1-Th2 profile. CAD subjects presented a Th1 profile with modest Th2 suppression while T2DM-CAD subjects showed enhanced Th1 profile with strong suppression of Th2 cytokines. Both Th1 and Th2 cytokines showed a positive correlation with FPG, HbA1c, hsCRP, IMT and AGI. Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant association of IL-12 (OR = 9.3; 95% CI = 3.2-70.7; p = 0.016), IFN-γ (OR = 2.8; 95% CI = 2.7-2.9, p = 0.010), IL-4 (OR = 2.7; 95% CI 2.7-2.7, p = 0.010), IL-5 (OR = 1.1; 95% CI = 1.0-1.4; p = 0.003) and IL-13 (OR = 2; 95% CI = 1.7-2.6; p = 0.017) with T2DM-CAD.

Conclusion

In conclusion, from the present study it appears that transition from T2DM or CAD to T2DM-CAD co-morbidity is associated with strong down regulation of Th2 cytokines and enhancement of Th1 responses.

Keywords:
CAD; T2DM; IL-2; IL-12; IFN-γ; IL-4; IL-5; IL-13