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Open Access Original investigation

Metabolic, hemodynamic and structural adjustments to low intensity exercise training in a metabolic syndrome model

Eduardo Morvan1, Nathalia Edviges Alves Lima1, Jacqueline Freire Machi2, Cristiano Mostarda2, Kátia De Angelis3, Maria Cláudia Irigoyen2, Rogério Brandão Wichi4, Bruno Rodrigues1 and Laura Beatriz Mesiano Maifrino15*

Author Affiliations

1 Human Movement Laboratory, Sao Judas Tadeu University, Av. Taquari, 546, São Paulo/SP 03166-000, Brazil

2 Hypertension Unit, Heart Institute (InCor), Medical School of University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo/SP, Brazil

3 Translational Physiology Laboratory, Nove de Julho University, São Paulo/SP, Brazil

4 Federal University of Sergipe, Aracajú/SE, Brazil

5 Institute of Cardiology Dante Pazzaneze, São Paulo/SP, Brazil

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Cardiovascular Diabetology 2013, 12:89  doi:10.1186/1475-2840-12-89

Published: 18 June 2013

Abstract

Background

The increase in fructose consumption is paralleled by a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome, and consequently, cardiovascular disease mortality. We examined the effects of 8 weeks of low intensity exercise training (LET) on metabolic, hemodynamic, ventricular and vascular morphological changes induced by fructose drinking in male rats.

Methods

Male Wistar rats were divided into (n = 8 each) control (C), sedentary fructose (F) and ET fructose (FT) groups. Fructose-drinking rats received D-fructose (100 g/l). FT rats were assigned to a treadmill training protocol at low intensity (30% of maximal running speed) during 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 8 weeks. Measurements of triglyceride concentrations, white adipose tissue (WAT) and glycemia were carried out together with insulin tolerance test to evaluate metabolic profile. Arterial pressure (AP) signals were directly recorded. Baroreflex sensitivity (BS) was evaluated by the tachycardic and bradycardic responses. Right atria, left ventricle (LV) and ascending aorta were prepared to morphoquantitative analysis.

Results

LET reduced WAT (−37.7%), triglyceride levels (−33%), systolic AP (−6%), heart weight/body weight (−20.5%), LV (−36%) and aortic (−76%) collagen fibers, aortic intima-media thickness and circumferential wall tension in FT when compared to F rats. Additionally, FT group presented improve of BS, numerical density of atrial natriuretic peptide granules (+42%) and LV capillaries (+25%), as well as the number of elastic lamellae in aorta compared with F group.

Conclusions

Our data suggest that LET, a widely recommended practice, seems to be particularly effective for preventing metabolic, hemodynamic and morphological disorders triggered by MS.

Keywords:
Fructose; Exercise training; Triglycerides; Insulin resistance; Baroreflex sensitivity; Cardiovascular remodeling; Aorta remodeling