Transient decrease in serum potassium level during ischemic attack of acute coronary syndrome: Paradoxical contribution of plasma glucose level and glycohemoglobin
1 Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8, Nishi-Shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461, Japan
2 Division of Clinical Epidemiology, The Jikei University School of Medicine, 3-25-8, Nishi-Shinbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 105-8461, Japan
Cardiovascular Diabetology 2013, 12:4 doi:10.1186/1475-2840-12-4Published: 4 January 2013
Although a decrease in serum potassium level has been suggested to be a fairly common observation in acute coronary syndrome (ACS), there have so far been no definitive reports directly demonstrating the transient potassium decrease (the potassium dip) during ischemic attack of ACS compared to stable phase in individual patients. To understand the pathophysiological significance of the potassium dip, we examined the changes in serum potassium level throughout ischemic attack and evaluated the clinical factors affecting it.
The degree of the potassium dip during ischemic attack (as indicated by ΔK, ΔK = K at discharge − K on admission) was examined in 311 consecutive patients with ACS who required urgent hospitalization in our institution.
Serum potassium level during ischemic attack was significantly decreased compared to that during stable phase (P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed that plasma glucose level during attack was the sole factor which was positively correlated with ΔK (P < 0.01), while HbA1c level was negatively correlated (P < 0.05). The medication profiles and renal function had no impact on ΔK. A longer hospitalization period, higher incidence of myocardial infarction and higher peak creatine kinase level were observed in patients with a larger ΔK.
We have clearly demonstrated that there is a transient decrease in serum potassium level during ischemic attack of ACS compared to stable phase. The degree of the potassium dip was tightly correlated with glucose level, which overwhelmed the diabetic condition, and it also indicates the disease severity. The present study therefore promotes awareness of the significance of monitoring potassium level in parallel with glucose level in patients with ACS.