Open Access Original investigation

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and food restriction restore delayed preconditioning in diabetic mice

Gerry Van der Mieren, Ines Nevelsteen, Annelies Vanderper, Wouter Oosterlinck, Willem Flameng and Paul Herijgers*

Author Affiliations

Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Research Unit Experimental Cardiac Surgery, K.U. Leuven, Herestraat 49, B-3000, Leuven, Belgium

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Cardiovascular Diabetology 2013, 12:36  doi:10.1186/1475-2840-12-36

Published: 23 February 2013

Abstract

Background

Classical and delayed preconditioning are powerful endogenous protection mechanisms against ischemia-reperfusion damage. However, it is still uncertain whether delayed preconditioning can effectively salvage myocardium in patients with co-morbidities, such as diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. We investigated delayed preconditioning in mice models of type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome and investigated interventions to optimize the preconditioning potential.

Methods

Hypoxic preconditioning was induced in C57Bl6-mice (WT), leptin deficient ob/ob (model for type II diabetes) and double knock-out (DKO) mice with combined leptin and LDL-receptor deficiency (model for metabolic syndrome). Twenty-four hours later, 30 min of regional ischemia was followed by 60 min reperfusion. Left ventricular contractility and infarct size were studied. The effect of 12 weeks food restriction or angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACE-I) on this was investigated. Differences between groups were analyzed for statistical significance by student’s t-test or one-way ANOVA followed by a Fisher’s LSD post hoc test. Factorial ANOVA was used to determine the interaction term between preconditioning and treatments, followed by a Fisher’s LSD post hoc test. Two-way ANOVA was used to determine the relationship between infarct size and contractility (PRSW). A value of p<0.05 was considered significant.

Results

Left ventricular contractility is reduced in ob/ob compared with WT and even further reduced in DKO. ACE-I improved contractility in ob/ob and DKO mice. After ischemia/reperfusion without preconditioning, infarct size was larger in DKO and ob/ob versus WT. Hypoxic preconditioning induced a strong protection in WT and a partial protection in ob/ob mice. The preconditioning potential was lost in DKO. Twelve weeks of food restriction or ACE-I restored the preconditioning potential in DKO and improved it in ob/ob.

Conclusion

Delayed preconditioning is restored by food restriction and ACE-I in case of type II diabetes and the metabolic syndrome.

Keywords:
Myocardial protection; Preconditioning; Ischemia/reperfusion injury; Diabetes mellitus; Metabolic syndrome