The role of profilin-1 in endothelial cell injury induced by advanced glycation end products (AGEs)
1 Department of Geriatric Medicine, Xiang-Ya Hospital, Central South University, Xiang-Ya Road 87#, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China
2 Department of Cardiology, the First People’s Hospital of Chenzhou, Chenzhou, Hunan 423000, China
3 Department of Cardiology, Xiang-Ya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008, China
Cardiovascular Diabetology 2013, 12:141 doi:10.1186/1475-2840-12-141Published: 4 October 2013
Accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the vasculature triggers a series of morphological and functional changes contributing to endothelial hyperpermeability. The reorganisation and redistribution of the cytoskeleton regulated by profilin-1 mediates endothelial cell contraction, which results in vascular hyperpermeability. This study aimed to investigate the pivotal role of profilin-1 in the process of endothelial cell damage induced by AGEs.
Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with AGEs. The mRNA and protein expression of profilin-1 was determined using real-time PCR and western blotting analyses. The levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS), as well as the activities of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and protein kinase C (PKC), were detected using the appropriate kits. The levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) were determined using HPLC. The distribution of the cytoskeleton was visualised using immunofluorescent staining.
Compared with the control, incubation of endothelial cells with AGEs (200 μg/ml) for 4 or 24 h significantly up-regulated the mRNA and protein expression of profilin-1, markedly increased the levels of ICAM-1 and ADMA and decreased the production of NO (P<0.05, P<0.01), which was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with DPI (an antioxidant), GF 109203X (PKC inhibitor) or BAY-117082 (NF-κB inhibitor). DPI (10 μmol/L) markedly decreased the elevated levels of ROS induced by AGEs (200 μg/ml, 24 h); however, GF 109203X (10 μmol/L) and BAY-117082 (5 μmol/L) exhibited no significant effect on the formation of ROS by AGEs. Immunofluorescent staining indicated that AGEs markedly increased the expression of profilin-1 in the cytoplasm and the formation of actin stress fibres, resulting in the rearrangement and redistribution of the cytoskeleton. This effect was significantly ameliorated by DPI, GF 109203X, BAY-117082 or siRNA treatment of profilin-1. Incubation with DPI and GF 109203X markedly inhibited the activation of PKC triggered by AGEs, and DPI and BAY-117082 significantly decreased the activity of NF-κB mediated by AGEs. Disruption of profilin-1 gene expression attenuated the extent of endothelial abnormalities by reducing ICAM-1 and ADMA levels and elevating NO levels (P<0.05, P<0.01), but this disruption had no effect on the activities of NF-κB and PKC (P>0.05).
These findings suggested that profilin-1 might act as an ultimate and common cellular effector in the process of metabolic memory (endothelial abnormalities) mediated by AGEs via the ROS/PKC or ROS/NF-қB signalling pathways.