Advanced glycation end products evoke endothelial cell damage by stimulating soluble dipeptidyl peptidase-4 production and its interaction with mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor
1 Department of Pathophysiology and Therapeutics of Diabetic Vascular Complications, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume, 830-0011, Japan
2 Department of Medical Biochemistry, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, 830-0011, Japan
Cardiovascular Diabetology 2013, 12:125 doi:10.1186/1475-2840-12-125Published: 28 August 2013
Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and receptor RAGE interaction play a role in diabetic vascular complications. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a potential therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes. However, the role of DPP-4 in AGE-induced endothelial cell (EC) damage remains unclear.
In this study, we investigated the effects of DPP-4 on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and RAGE gene expression in ECs. We further examined whether an inhibitor of DPP-4, linagliptin inhibited AGE-induced soluble DPP-4 production, ROS generation, RAGE, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene expression in ECs.
DPP-4 dose-dependently increased ROS generation and RAGE gene expression in ECs, which were prevented by linagliptin. Mannose 6-phosphate (M6P) and antibodies (Ab) raised against M6P/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (M6P/IGF-IIR) completely blocked the ROS generation in DPP-4-exposed ECs, whereas surface plasmon resonance revealed that DPP-4 bound to M6P/IGF-IIR at the dissociation constant of 3.59 x 10-5 M. AGEs or hydrogen peroxide increased soluble DPP-4 production by ECs, which was prevented by N-acetylcysteine, RAGE-Ab or linagliptin. Linagliptin significantly inhibited the AGE-induced ROS generation, RAGE, ICAM-1 and PAI-1 gene expression in ECs.
The present study suggests that AGE-RAGE-induced ROS generation stimulates the release of DPP-4 from ECs, which could in turn act on ECs directly via the interaction with M6P/IGF-IIR, further potentiating the deleterious effects of AGEs. The blockade by linagliptin of positive feedback loop between AGE-RAGE axis and DPP-4 might be a novel therapeutic target for vascular injury in diabetes.